How to recognize the cracks dangerous from the superficial ones? Discover how to understand the underlying causes of the lesions of the walls.
The cracks in the walls are never a pretty sight, either because they are ugly to look at both because they can betray the presence of some structural problem in the building. The injury of the walls may be a symptom of simple adjustments of the structure or the signal problems that go beyond the simple aesthetic damage to the house. Each crack may have different origins and require special recovery depending on your hazard.
What are the causes of cracks in the walls?
The cracks of adjustment, for example, and occur when the building needs to download the tensions that occur between the materials that compose it to achieve stability.
Not all types of cracks are serious but must be kept under control to judge whether they can cause possible damages to things and to people. The underlying causes of the formation of cracks and fissures can be multiple and due to different areas of the building and the underlying land. In fact, we can even have causes that are not in the immediate circumstances of the cracks on the walls, as well as cracks visible that might actually prove to be without any connotation, which is dangerous for the stability of the building.
The cracks in the walls, are attributable to a few causes of deterioration that leads the building to search for a new equilibrium to the static level. We can have cracks in the walls that occur in the case of excessive loads placed in a certain area of the home, the change in the level of ground water under the house, to periods of drought or intense humidity that result in a substantial change in the humidity of the house, the construction of additional plans in the building, the seismic events.
The land may be subject to change in its own “composition” of geotechnical engineering because of the climatic conditions, such as in the case of periods of intense drought or prolonged floods that alter in a sudden firmness, and volume of the soil.
There are also human interventions which can alter the stability of a home, we think of the shipyards in the vicinity of the building, to the underground operations to insert piping, even if not directly affecting the foundations of the building but the adjacent ones.
Among the causes of the cracks in the walls, we have:
- an incorrect design of the structure is unsuitable to withstand the loads too high
- deterioration of materials of poor quality or not suitable to be applied together
- an excessive load of the roof structure
- exercises or crisis structural
- the use of materials with diverse physical and mechanical characteristics
- thermal expansion phenomena, such as frost, fire, thermal excursion
- seismic events
- shrinkage or creep of the materials
- expansion not allowed for the absence of joints
- the depth of the foundations is insufficient
- loads of the building is not dimensioned properly in the design phase
- specifications of place (e.g. the inability of the land to drain rainwater)
How to understand if the cracks are dangerous
Usually, when you are in front of the cracks in the plaster, you may be pushed to ignore them, and celarle from the aesthetic point of view, or you can contact the experts who specialize in geoedilizia to evaluate if they consist of or not a danger for the sustainability of the house.
The diy in these cases is not recommended because the untrained eye is not able to understand if this is a phenomenon of normal settling or a symptom of a potential failure of the foundation.
Cover the cracks , in fact, has no effect on the possible instability in the deed, as it only serves to conceal the damage on the surface without acting on the causes in depth that they have originated from. The cracks in a certain extent, these phenomena are inevitable, since they are caused by the actions of traction that overcome the resistance of the materials leading to their formation.
In order to understand the actual scope, however, must be assessed according to their quantity, the frequency with which they appear in the structure and their location.
To understand, therefore, if the cracks in the walls are dangerous , we must first verify the shape with which you present. The cracks are generally three types: horizontal, vertical, and oblique.
The cracks vertical can appear both in the external walls and internal in the building. Generally reveal that the weight of the building is not correctly downloaded on the ground. If the crack affects two adjacent houses it is advisable to perform an appraisal of both the buildings to see if one of the two has occurred, a differential subsidence of the foundations.
The cracks horizontal typically occur when the beams of the ceiling does not have a sufficient cross-section to withstand a given load, causing the appearance of these cracks. Cracks horizontal denote an excessive weight of the upper cover, with the beams of the roof that do not hold up and often go down.
The cracks oblique, those at 45°, are caused by a change in the localized and by a lowering of the differential of the foundations. For example, the drought may push up the ground to retract, producing movements that can lead to the formation of cracks, oblique especially at the corners of doors and windows.
If the weight is not distributed evenly on the walls or the ground wavered at certain points can feel the cracks and oblique.
Among the various possible remedies to restore security to the building there are:
- sottomurazioni to make more solid the foundations
- injections of resins to fill in the blanks
- drains to remove the water trapped under the building
- driving of micropiles pressoinfissi in support of the foundation
- reinforcement of the weakened parts of the structure with reinforced concrete, stone or wood
In any case, the suggestion is to turn to specialized technicians in the evaluation of the state of solidity of the foundations of the home to verify the cause and extent of the damage and to identify the most suitable action to remove the cracks on the walls.